What is an Adjective?
An adjective is a word which describes the quality of the noun/ pronoun in the sentence. The adjective may be used either attributively, i.e., along with the noun or predicatively, as part of the predicate of the sentence. In this article lets see various types of adjectives.
- Attributive Adjective: There are dark clouds.
- Predicative Adjective: The clouds are dark.
Types of Adjectives
Adjective of Quality
This adjective describes the quality of the noun in the sentence.
- She has beautiful eyes.
- The food is delicious.
Adjective of Quantity
This adjective shows the quantity of the thing mentioned in the sentence.
- I bought some apples.
- There is not much sense in what he said.
Adjective of Number
It shows the number of the noun/pronoun that is mentioned.
- There are sixteen pens in the bag.
- He is the first person to achieve that record.
This type of adjective points out which person or thing is meant in the sentence.
- This chair is made of iron.
- That type of behavior is not allowed.
- What do you want?
Adjectives used as Nouns
Some adjectives are used as plural nouns. They denote a class or section of people.
- “The Poor” means the section of poor people.
- “The employed” means employed people.
In some sentences, there will be a group of words which do the job of an adjective. That’s called an adjective phrase.
- That’s an idea with a difference.
- She wore a ring made of gold.
Now that we have discussed the types of adjectives, lets understand degrees of comparison in brief.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
“Degrees of Comparison” is the most important topic related to adjectives. While comparing the attributes of nouns or pronouns, the degrees of adjectives change accordingly. There are three types of degrees of comparison.
This is an adjective in its simple form. When describing the Quality of a noun without comparing anyone, positive degree is used.
- This is a small town.
Comparative degree is used when two nouns or pronouns are compared. It indicates the higher degree of the quality than the positive degree.
- This town is smaller than that town.
It indicates the highest degree of adjectives and is used when two or more things are in comparison.
- This is the smallest town in the country.
[In the above three examples, the adjective “small” is used in varying degrees accordingly “Small- Smaller- Smallest”].
Rules for changing Degrees of Comparison
- While changing positive to comparative, most of the adjectives add an ‘er’ to the positive degree and ‘est’ while changing into superlative.
- Some adjectives use the adverbs more and most while changing into comparative and superlative degrees respectively.
|Difficult||More Difficult||Most Difficult|
|Intelligent||More Intelligent||Most Intelligent|
- Some adjectives do not go by the above rules and use different words for comparative and superlative degrees. Here are some of them:
- While comparing the two adjectives of the same person, ‘er’ should not be used in comparative degree.
- Mohan is ‘more wise’ than strong. [In normal circumstances, the word WISER is used in comparative degree But here in this sentence, both the adjectives are of the same person (Mohan). Hence ‘more wise’ should be used.]
- While converting some adjectives from positive degree to comparative, some adjectives should be accompanied by the preposition ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.
They are: Inferior, Superior, Prior, Anterior, Posterior, junior, senior.
- India’s performance is superior to Australia’s.
- He is junior to me.
- Double comparatives and superlatives should never be used.
For example, “Apples are more sweeter than mangoes” should never be used. The comparative degree of sweet is sweeter. Hence “Apples are sweeter than mangoes” is correct.
More varieties and rules are learnt while solving practice exercises.
For more on grammar click here
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